How to Plant And Care For Alfalfa: From Seeding to Harvesting

How to Plant And Care For Alfalfa
17 min reading time

Welcome to our comprehensive guide on how to successfully plant and care for your alfalfa crop. Whether you’re an experienced farmer or just starting, this guide has all the essential information you need for growing healthy alfalfa plants. We will provide you with expert tips and advice on everything from selecting the ideal location to the proper techniques for fertilization and weed control.

Growing alfalfa requires proper planning, attention, and care, but with the right knowledge, you can have a thriving crop. In this guide, you’ll learn valuable alfalfa planting tips and alfalfa plant care techniques to ensure your success. Let’s get started on how to plant and care for alfalfa.

Understanding Alfalfa: A Brief Overview

Before diving into the planting and care instructions, it’s important to have a basic understanding of alfalfa. Alfalfa is a perennial legume and a vital forage crop for livestock and dairy farming. Its deep roots help to fix nitrogen in the soil, making it an essential component of sustainable agriculture.

There are many varieties of alfalfa, each with their own unique characteristics and suitability for different regions. The most common types of alfalfa include dormancy groupings based on their winter hardiness and fall growth: non-dormant, semi-dormant, and dormant varieties. Each of these groups has different characteristics, such as yield potential, drought tolerance, and disease resistance.

Alfalfa is also known for its high nutritional value, providing protein, fiber, and essential vitamins and minerals to livestock. This makes it a popular choice for farmers looking to enhance their animal feed programs.

When it comes to cultivation, alfalfa is a versatile crop that can be planted alone or in combination with other crops. It can also be used as a cover crop to improve soil health and prevent erosion.

Alfalfa Seed Planting Guide

To establish a productive alfalfa stand, it’s important to select high-quality seeds and follow proper planting procedures. Here are some important guidelines to consider when planting alfalfa:

  1. Choose a variety of seed that is well-suited for your climate and soil conditions.
  2. Ensure that the seed is clean and free of weeds, disease, and other contaminants.
  3. Plant seeds at the recommended depth, which is typically between 0.25 and 1 inch.
  4. For best results, plant seeds in a firm, well-prepared seedbed with good seed-to-soil contact.
  5. Plant seeds at the recommended rate, which is typically between 10 and 20 pounds per acre.

With proper planning and attention to detail, you can successfully grow and maintain healthy alfalfa plants.

Selecting the Right Location for Alfalfa

The key to establishing a successful alfalfa crop starts with selecting the right location. While alfalfa can grow in a variety of soils, it’s important to choose a well-drained field with good water infiltration. Additionally, alfalfa requires full sunlight for optimal growth, so select a site that receives at least six hours of direct sunlight each day.

Before planting alfalfa, it’s essential to test the soil for pH, nutrient levels, and other characteristics that may affect plant growth. Collect soil samples from several areas of the field and send them to a soil testing lab for analysis. Soil test results can inform soil preparation and fertilizer application decisions.

When it comes to field preparation, alfalfa growers should consider the “two passes” system. The first pass involves plowing and preparing the soil, while the second pass involves creating a seedbed. This approach helps create a uniform seedbed that promotes even germination and growth.

Keep in mind that alfalfa can be sensitive to certain herbicides, so consult with your local extension office or agronomist for herbicide recommendations or alternative weed control methods.

How to Plant And Care For Alfalfa: Preparing the Soil

How to Plant And Care For Alfalfa

Proper soil preparation is vital for the successful establishment of your alfalfa plants. Here are some alfalfa planting tips to ensure that your crop is healthy and productive:

  • Choose the right field: Start by selecting a well-draining, deep, and fertile field. Avoid fields with heavy clay or gravel soils that may prevent proper root growth.
  • Conduct a soil test: A soil test can help determine the pH levels, nutrient deficiencies, and the presence of any toxic substances. This information is essential in choosing the right soil amendments and fertilizers.
  • Apply soil amendments: Based on the soil test results, add the necessary soil amendments to adjust pH levels and correct nutrient deficiencies. Organic matter, such as compost or manure, can also be added to enhance soil fertility.
  • Control weeds: Weeds can compete with alfalfa plants for nutrients and water. Prior to planting, remove all weeds and their roots from the field. After planting, use pre-emergent herbicides to prevent weed growth.
  • Timing: Alfalfa should be planted in the late summer or early fall, preferably when the soil temperature is above 50°F. This timing allows for optimal root development and successful overwintering.

By following these alfalfa planting tips and managing your crop properly, you can ensure a healthy and productive alfalfa field. Regular monitoring and maintenance practices, such as irrigation and nutrient management, are also essential in achieving a thriving crop.

Selecting and Planting Alfalfa Seeds

If you want to grow healthy and productive alfalfa plants, it’s crucial to start with high-quality seeds. When selecting alfalfa seeds, consider various factors such as seed purity, germination rates, and disease resistance. For best results, choose seeds that have been tested and proven to perform well in your region.

Before planting alfalfa seeds, it’s essential to prepare the soil properly. Start by tilling the soil to a depth of 8-12 inches, removing any debris and leveling the field for uniform seed placement. Alfalfa seeds should be planted at a rate of 10-25 pounds per acre, depending on the seed size and desired plant density.

Plant alfalfa seeds shallowly, at a depth of 1/4 to 1/2 inch, in rows spaced between 6 and 18 inches apart. This spacing will ensure proper plant growth and allow enough room for equipment to pass through the field for maintenance and harvest.

Alfalfa seeds should be planted in moist soil and kept uniformly moist throughout the germination period, which typically takes between 5 and 10 days. Once the seeds have sprouted, gradually increase irrigation to encourage strong root development and healthy plant growth.

To promote even growth and avoid competition for nutrients, thin seedlings to a density of 15-20 plants per square foot after the first cutting. This will ensure healthy yields and optimal plant health.

Proper Irrigation Practices for Alfalfa

Alfalfa is a high-water use crop and requires adequate irrigation for optimal growth and productivity. Proper irrigation practices are essential for the health of alfalfa plants and their ability to produce high-quality hay or forage.

The amount of water required for alfalfa plants depends on several factors, including soil type, weather, stage of growth, and plant density. It’s important to monitor soil moisture regularly to ensure that plants are receiving adequate water.

The best time to irrigate alfalfa is during the early morning hours when temperatures are cooler and evapotranspiration rates are lower. Overhead sprinklers, drip irrigation, and flood irrigation are common irrigation methods for alfalfa.

Overhead sprinklers are effective for small acreages and provide good coverage of the field. Drip irrigation is more water-efficient and provides water directly to the roots, which can improve plant growth and reduce water loss due to evaporation. Flood irrigation is a traditional method that involves flooding the field with water, which can be effective, but may result in higher water loss due to runoff and evaporation.

It’s essential to maintain proper irrigation scheduling to prevent over or under watering. Over watering can lead to waterlogging, nutrient leaching, and disease issues, while under watering can result in stunted growth and reduced yields.

In addition to proper irrigation practices, regularly monitoring plants for signs of stress, such as wilting or yellowing, is crucial for maintaining healthy alfalfa plants. Adjusting irrigation practices as needed can help prevent stress and maintain plant health.

Fertilizing and Nutrient Management for Alfalfa

Proper fertilization and nutrient management are essential components of alfalfa plant care and maintenance. Nutrient deficiencies can lead to stunted growth, reduced yield, and poor quality hay. In this section, we will discuss the importance of nutrient management and provide recommendations for fertilizing your alfalfa fields.

Soil Testing

Soil testing is a critical first step in developing an effective nutrient management strategy. Testing your soil will help you determine its nutrient content, pH levels, and other essential properties. Based on the results, you can then develop a fertilizer plan that addresses any nutrient deficiencies and optimizes the nutritional needs of your alfalfa crop.

Nutrient Deficiencies

Common nutrient deficiencies in alfalfa include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, and calcium. Symptoms of nutrient deficiencies can include yellowing leaves, stunted growth, and reduced yield. If you suspect nutrient deficiencies in your alfalfa crop, it’s important to address them promptly to avoid long-term damage.

Choosing the Right Fertilizer

When selecting a fertilizer for your alfalfa crop, consider factors such as the crop’s growth stage, soil test results, and targeted nutrient deficiencies. Alfalfa has high nutrient demands, especially for nitrogen and potassium, so choosing a fertilizer with a balanced blend of nutrients is essential. Organic fertilizers such as manure and compost can also be effective in improving soil fertility and supplementing essential nutrients.

Fertilizer Application Techniques

Alfalfa fertilizers are typically applied at specific times during the growing season. The first application is usually made in early spring when the crop is actively growing. Additional applications may be made during or after each cutting cycle, depending on soil test results and the crop’s nutritional needs.

When applying fertilizer, it’s important to use the correct equipment and techniques to ensure even distribution across the field. Over-applying fertilizer can lead to nutrient runoff and contamination of nearby water sources. Under-applying fertilizer, on the other hand, can lead to nutrient deficiencies and reduced crop yield.

Managing Soil pH

Soil pH can significantly impact the availability of nutrients for alfalfa plants. It’s important to maintain a soil pH between 6.5 and 7.0 for optimal nutrient uptake. Soil amendments such as lime or sulfur may be necessary to adjust the soil pH, depending on the test results.

Weed Control in Alfalfa Fields

Weeds can be a significant problem for alfalfa fields, as they can compete with the crop for nutrients, water, and sunlight. Without proper weed control, weeds can reduce the yield and quality of alfalfa hay.

The most effective weed control strategies are those that are integrated, combining cultural, mechanical, and chemical methods. Here are some effective techniques for weed control in alfalfa fields:

Cultural Methods

Cultural methods involve practices that modify the environment to reduce weed growth. Some effective cultural methods for weed control in alfalfa fields include:

  • Establishing a dense and healthy alfalfa stand: A thick stand of alfalfa can help shade out weed seedlings and prevent their establishment. Proper soil preparation, seeding rate, and planting date can help establish a dense alfalfa stand.
  • Rotating crops: Rotating crops with non-legume crops can help reduce weed pressure in alfalfa fields. It can also help break the weed and insect cycles.

Mechanical Methods

Mechanical methods involve physically removing weeds from the field. Some mechanical methods for weed control in alfalfa fields include:

  • Mowing: Regular mowing can help prevent weeds from going to seed and spreading throughout the field. Mowing can also reduce weed competition and promote alfalfa growth.
  • Cultivation: Cultivation can be an effective method for controlling weeds in new alfalfa fields, but is not recommended for established stands, as it can damage alfalfa plants.

Chemical Methods

Chemical methods involve the use of herbicides to control weeds in alfalfa fields. Some effective herbicides for weed control in alfalfa fields include:

HerbicideTarget WeedsApplication Timing
2,4-DBroadleaf weedsPre-emergence or post-emergence
ClopyralidBroadleaf weedsPost-emergence
ImazethapyrGrassy and broadleaf weedsPost-emergence

It is essential to follow label instructions when applying herbicides to ensure their effectiveness and safety. It is also important to rotate herbicides to prevent weed resistance.

By implementing integrated weed management strategies, you can reduce weed pressure in your alfalfa fields and promote healthy growth and yield of your crop.

Pest and Disease Management for Alfalfa

Alfalfa crops are susceptible to various pests and diseases, which can significantly impact their productivity. Proper management strategies are essential to keep these issues under control.

Identification and Prevention

The first step in addressing pest and disease issues in your alfalfa fields is to identify them accurately. Regular scouting and monitoring of the crop are critical to detect early signs of problems. Insects such as aphids, weevils, and leafhoppers can damage alfalfa leaves and stems, while diseases such as root rot, crown rot, and yellow dwarf virus can lead to stunted growth and reduced yields.

Prevention is key to managing pests and diseases. Avoid planting alfalfa in fields that have a history of these issues. Ensure proper soil fertility and drainage to support healthy plant growth.

Integrated Pest Management

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is an effective approach to controlling pests and diseases in alfalfa fields. IPM combines multiple tactics, including cultural, mechanical, and chemical approaches, to manage pests and diseases effectively.

Cultural techniques such as crop rotation, sanitation, and field preparation can reduce the presence of pests and diseases. Mechanical techniques such as mowing, harvesting, and cultivation can also help control pest populations.

When necessary, chemical control methods such as pesticides, insecticides, and fungicides can be used. It’s essential to follow all label instructions when using these products, as they can harm beneficial insects and pollinators.

Managing Weeds

Weeds can compete with alfalfa for nutrients and water, reducing crop yields. Integrated weed management strategies can help control weed populations in alfalfa fields. Pre-planting techniques such as tillage and herbicide application can reduce the presence of weeds.

Post-emergence herbicide options are also available for controlling weeds in established crops. However, it’s essential to select the appropriate herbicide and apply it at the right time to avoid harming alfalfa plants.

Harvesting and Storing Alfalfa Hay

How to Plant And Care For Alfalfa

Harvesting and storing alfalfa hay is a critical step in maintaining its nutritional value. Timing and proper techniques are essential to preserve the quality of the hay.

The best time to harvest alfalfa hay is when it’s at the bud or early bloom stage, as this is when the plant’s nutrient content is at its highest. To determine the right stage of maturity, look for the presence of at least 10% blooms on the entire field.

When cutting the alfalfa, make sure the blades are sharp to achieve a clean cut and prevent plant damage. The most common method of harvesting alfalfa is with a swather or mower-conditioner. Once cut, the alfalfa should dry quickly to avoid spoilage. The hay should be left to dry in the field for one to three days, depending on the weather conditions.

After drying, the alfalfa hay needs to be baled. Small square bales and large round bales are the most common types of alfalfa hay bales. When baling, make sure the hay is tightly packed to avoid molding. It’s essential to store the bales in a dry, well-ventilated area to prevent moisture buildup.

When storing the hay, it’s imperative to keep it off the ground by using pallets or racks. This prevents the hay from absorbing moisture and ensures proper air circulation around the bales. Additionally, it’s important to monitor the bales regularly for signs of mold or temperature buildup, which could indicate spoilage.

Proper harvesting and storage techniques are vital in maintaining the nutritional value of alfalfa hay. With the right care, your alfalfa hay can last for years and provide a valuable source of nutrition for your livestock.

Alfalfa Field Maintenance Throughout the Seasons

Proper maintenance of your alfalfa fields is essential for ensuring healthy plant growth and high productivity. Here are some alfalfa plant care and maintenance tips to follow throughout the seasons:

Spring Management

In spring, it’s important to monitor your alfalfa fields for weeds and pests. Control weeds when they are small and before they can compete with the alfalfa for nutrients and water. Scout for pests such as aphids, armyworms, and weevils, and consider applying appropriate pesticides if necessary.

Additionally, check for any signs of nutrient deficiencies and apply any necessary fertilizer. It’s also a good time to take soil samples and test for pH and nutrient levels to ensure proper soil fertility.

Summer Management

In the summer months, monitor your alfalfa fields for pests and diseases, as well as any signs of moisture stress. Adequate irrigation is crucial during this time, as alfalfa requires frequent watering to maintain its growth and productivity.

Additionally, be sure to monitor your fields for any signs of nutrient deficiencies, and adjust your fertilization schedule as needed. Consider applying a foliar feed if your plants are experiencing any nutrient deficiencies.

Fall Management

In the fall, it’s important to prepare your alfalfa fields for winter dormancy. This includes removing any weeds or remaining crop residues, as well as making sure that your fields are adequately fertilized.

Fall is also a good time to assess the productivity of your fields and make any adjustments or plans for the following year’s crop.

Winter Dormancy

During the winter months, your alfalfa fields will go into dormancy. During this time, it’s important to avoid any traffic on your fields, as this can damage the dormant plants and reduce productivity in the spring.

It’s also a good time to make plans for the upcoming growing season, including any changes you want to make to your field management.

By following these alfalfa farming techniques and regularly monitoring your fields throughout the seasons, you can ensure healthy plant growth and productivity year after year.


You have now reached the end of our extensive guide on How to Plant And Care For Alfalfa. We hope the information provided has given you a complete understanding of alfalfa cultivation and the farming techniques required to grow a healthy and productive crop.

Remember, it is crucial to carefully select the right alfalfa seeds, prepare the soil adequately, and properly manage irrigation, fertilization, and pest control. Regular field inspections and maintenance throughout the seasons are also essential to achieving optimal crop yields.

We wish you all the best in your alfalfa farming endeavors and hope this guide has served as a helpful resource for you.


How do I plant and care for alfalfa?

Planting and caring for alfalfa requires proper soil preparation, selecting the right seeds, irrigation, fertilization, weed control, pest and disease management, and timely harvesting.

How do I select the right location for growing alfalfa?

Selecting the right location for alfalfa involves considering factors such as soil type, drainage, sunlight requirements, and conducting soil testing. Proper field preparation techniques are also important to create optimal conditions for alfalfa growth.

What steps are involved in preparing the soil for alfalfa planting?

Proper soil preparation for alfalfa planting includes ensuring soil fertility, maintaining appropriate pH levels, adding organic matter, and controlling weeds. Soil amendments and timing of soil preparation are also crucial.

How do I select and plant alfalfa seeds?

Selecting high-quality alfalfa seeds based on factors like seed purity, germination rates, and disease resistance is important. Planting alfalfa seeds involves considering seed rate, depth, and spacing

How do I fertilize and manage nutrients for alfalfa?

Alfalfa has specific nutrient requirements. Fertilization and nutrient management involve soil testing, addressing nutrient deficiencies, selecting the right fertilizer, and proper application techniques. We also provide recommendations for managing soil pH and addressing common nutrient-related issues.

How do I control weeds in alfalfa fields?

Weeds can significantly impact alfalfa growth and yield. Effective weed control strategies include pre-planting weed control methods, post-emergence herbicide options, and integrated weed management practices. We also provide guidance on identifying and managing common weeds.

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